Descartes, Rene – French philosopher, 1596–1650
Cartesian Dualism – the belief, originated by Descartes, that the physical world and the world of thoughts, emotions and faith were two completely different worlds.
Enlightenment – A movement in the 17-18th centuries in Europe which saw the human race as emerging from the dark ages and making significant progress in the world of science. thus enabling human flourishing and happiness. Human reason became the most important thing, with evidence gained from the five senses as the only reliable guide.
Modernism – The culture which emerged from the Enlightenment, in which human reason reigned supreme.
Materialism – the Modernist belief that only the physical is real and has value.
Rationalism – the Modernist belief that only the provable and logical is reliable.
Psychology of Religion – the branch of science which studied the enduring phenomenon of religious belief, and sought to explain it in scientific terms.
Scientism – the worship of Science as the all-powerful god.